I collect guns and gunsmith and here is my option take it for what it is worth...lol
My first rifle (age 12) was a 30-30 I got my first deer with it.
30-30 Good gun but short range and elk and moose are out with a 30-30.
308 I like my 308 and have deer hunted with it many times, good cal but again a large moose is pushing it.
7mm I currently hunt with a 7mm as it has good range and great power I can us it for any game with confidence.
300 mag about the same as the 7mm (father uses the 300).
30-06 is a middle ground between the 308 and 7mm it has better distance and power than the 308/30-30 but less than the 7mm/300 mag. You could hunt all game with a 30-06 with comfidence.
The others you can go for is a Marlin 444....lol for those that don't mess around.