Welcome to OCDO imcnblu .
I have taken the liberty of moving your post to the Virginia sub-forum as most of your questions are state specific.
You need to read the rest of § 18.2-287. including the part where permit (CHP) holders are exempt from the restriction.
"The provisions of this section shall not apply to law-enforcement officers, licensed security guards, military personnel in the performance of their lawful duties, or any person having a valid concealed handgun permit or to any person actually engaged in lawful hunting or lawful recreational shooting activities at an established shooting range or shooting contest. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor."
You will not receive your CHP at the end of the class. You will get a certificate which will satisfy the training requirements of §18.2-308 . An application for the CHP will likely be provided by your instructor. You file it in accordance with §18.2-308 at the Clerk of Courts office in the municipality where you live - they have 45 days to issue you the permit.
I will leave it to others to expound further on your queries.