US v. Black
Among other things,
reaffirming that a seizure takes place when a reasonable person would think s/he was not free to leave,
reaffirming that police cannot make RAS out of innocent unconnected facts,
reaffirming that refusal to comply does not give RAS, nor does complying,
reaffirming that simply being present in a "high-crime area" does not give RAS,
stating that made-up police rules are not sufficient basis for a seizure or search...
There's so much reason used & written by the Court, it's worth the time to wade through it.
It's only 17 pages, one narrow column, and a few pages at start & finish aren't part of the case.
If police officers can justify unreasonable seizures on a citizenís acquiescence, individuals would have no Fourth Amendment protections unless they interact with officers with the perfect amount of graceful disdain.
Blackís decision to leave was an effort to terminate an illegal seizure.There is no reasonable suspicion merely by association.Being a felon in possession of a firearm is not the default status. More importantly, where a state permits individuals to openly carry firearms, the exercise of this right, without more, cannot justify an investigatory detention.That the officer had never seen anyone in this particular division openly carry a weapon also fails to justify reasonable suspicion.