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Thread: For police body cameras, big costs loom in storing footage.

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    For police body cameras, big costs loom in storing footage.

    The storage expenses — running into the millions of dollars in some cities — often go overlooked in the debates over using cameras as a way to hold officers accountable and improve community relations. But they can be significant, and may force some police chiefs to choose between paying officers on the street or yearly video storage fees.

    http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/...m-in-storing-/

    LOLOLOL But the spy agencies, FedGov and local, can afford to record everything else?
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    Quote Originally Posted by Nightmare View Post
    LOLOLOL But the spy agencies, FedGov and local, can afford to record everything else?
    I'm very much in favor of body cams. But I'm also very much aware that they are not the panacea some think they will be, indeed, in some cases will cause problems.

    Storage expanse are not to be overlooked. That a federal agency may be compiling and storing a lot of info doesn't make it any less costly for the local PDs to do so.

    More importantly, most of the NSA type storage is all automated. With body cams, there is going to be a lot of manual storage and transfers to do. Sure, it becomes part of the cop's job. He finishes his patrol, fills out paperwork, downloads his body cam data, tags it appropriately, and goes on his way. I don't whether that is a 5 minute part of his job or a 35 minute part of his job. But it probably isn't 0 minutes until someone improves body cams and the mass storage devices to automate the process.

    Then we add the costs of secure backup, offsite of course so data isn't lost to a fire, personal to run the system, and your typical local department is probably looking at an on-going 10% hit to their budget. That isn't overwhelming, but it isn't insignificant.

    I suspect that the presence of cameras will prevent bad conduct on both sides in many cases. And in some cases, will provide evidence to either clear or convict the cop or suspect. But too many in our society will not understand that what a body cam doesn't show may still be very important. Too many don't understand that a body cam won't give them a movie-like view of real life situation.


    Cost analysis below:

    Depending on how long body cam videos need to be stored, we are talking about a lot of storage. According to this calculator, 1 hour of 1280x720 video at 15 frames a second (pretty low quality), encoded with H.264 (a newish and pretty decent standard) will require 13 GB of storage. That works out to 312 GB per 24 hours of officer street time. How many officers on the street per day?

    According to this site most cities have between 10 and 40 officers per 10,000 population. Figure a nice median of 20. Ignoring both overtime and time not on the street, that works out to about 5 officers on the street, 24/7, for each 10,000 in population or the equivalent of 25 officers 24/7 for a modest sized town of 50,000 persons. That is about about 7.8 TerraBytes per day, every day. How long should video be stored before it can be deleted? 30 days? 90 days? A year? At 30 days, you're talking about 234 TerraBytes of storage needed or about 78, 3-TB hard drives. Retain it for a year, and you're up to 2.8 PetaBytes, or a little shy of 1000, 3 TB hard drives just for the 1st copy of the data.

    A 5 bay disk drive based storage unit is about $1,000 on amazon, minus the disks. For 5 disks, toss in another $1,000. So $2,000 15 TB of storage. You'll need 390 of these for each 30 days you want to retain video so about $780k in hardware, per month of storage, or about $10 Million in hardware for one year's worth of storage. Double that for doing back up. We are ignoring electrical costs which for large storage arrays are high enough that folks like Google deliberately situate their disk and computer farms in locations like Washington State or Oregon with cheap, hydroelectric power available. Disks have about a 3 year lifespan, so we are talking about $3 Million a year in capital purchases.

    On top of this, you'll need to hire at least one, and maybe two full time IT specialists to run the system. That will run you upwards of $150k a year for salary and benefits. So we are at $3.3 Million a year on top of the cameras and the time the officers spend. For a city of 100k population and a department of some 200 officers ($100K a year for salary and benefits) total police budget is probably on the order of $30M a year. So $3M a year out of a $30M budget is about 10%.

    Maybe my estimates are off and it is only 5%. That is still a notable line item on the budget.

    Charles
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    I have well over a 100 full length movies on a one TB hard drive that cost 50 bucks, and I have not even come close to using one fifth of that drive. I have a hard time believing that storage is the problem with implementing use of body cams. Hard drives can store HUGE amounts of data, cities and counties and the state are already using massive drives to store data, cost has never stopped them before. IMO they just don't want to do it. The money saved from insurance going down from reduced lawsuits would probably more than take care of the costs.

    Just more malarkey and waffling because some are scared of the camera.

    Cite your figures for the amount of storage needed for the size department you claim? From what I have seen in most ads 1 TB holds over 1300 movies, at 2 hours per movie that is 2600 hours per TB of MP4 storage.
    Last edited by WalkingWolf; 02-06-2015 at 05:07 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by WalkingWolf View Post
    Cite your figures for the amount of storage needed for the size department you claim? From what I have seen in most ads 1 TB holds over 1300 movies, at 2 hours per movie that is 2600 hours per TB of MP4 storage.
    Not at any reasonable quality. According to this calculator, an hour of H.264 compressed HD video (1920x1080 at 60 fps) requires 87 GB. At 2 hours per movie, 1300 movies would require 225 TB. H.265 will improve compression by about 40%. So call it 130 TB to get 1300, 2 hour long HD movies.

    Even when encoded down to view on my phone, a 2 hour movie requires a full Gigabyte of data, or 2.6 TB for your 1300 movies.

    And you've ignore how much data your're really talking about. A modest sized town of 100,000 persons likely has an average of 5 officers working 24/7. That works out to (5 officers * 24 hours/day * 30 days/month) 3600 hours of video per month. Are you ok if the department overwrites video every 30 days? Or do you want them to retain it for a year? Do you want it indexed in some useful way? Or just raw video stored by officer and date? I trust you won't be happy if a department claims videos were lost to a hard drive failure, so off site backup is going to be required.

    Again, I'm very much in favor of body cams.

    But anyone who hasn't worked with large data storage should be a bit careful in presuming to know what it costs to store and manage the large amounts of data involved with ubiquitous use of body cameras.

    Reduced legal, insurance, and settlement costs might be realized. And a good thing if they were. But how much is your local department currently spending on such things and how much do you figure they could be reduced with the use of body cameras?

    Charles
    Last edited by utbagpiper; 02-06-2015 at 07:13 PM.
    All experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. Thank heaven we do not permit a few to impose anarchy.

    "With Anarchy as an aim and as a means, Communism becomes possible."
    --Marxist.org

    "Communism and Anarchy [are], a necessary complement to one another. "
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    Quote Originally Posted by utbagpiper View Post
    /snip
    And yet, I have over 250 1080P HD full length movies on my laptop computer that only takes up about 500GB of hard drive space. At about 1.5 hours per movie, that is 450 hours worth of HD video. I have worked with computers all my life and I have watched as tech has improved continuously as prices have come down. And to make matters "worse", I know for a fact that .gov agencies get a major discount when they purchase such tech in large quantities. The prices that have been listed for hard drives and such is for the average person. .gov agencies don't purchase them 1 hard drive at a time. They purchase hard drives in bulk. Think servers. Or better yet, they can simply purchase storage space from providers or government contractors (actually, the tax payers are the ones making the purchase).
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    Quote Originally Posted by utbagpiper View Post
    Not at any reasonable quality. According to this calculator, an hour of H.264 compressed HD video (1920x1080 at 60 fps) requires 87 GB. At 2 hours per movie, 1300 movies would require 225 TB. H.265 will improve compression by about 40%. So call it 130 TB to get 1300, 2 hour long HD movies.

    Even when encoded down to view on my phone, a 2 hour movie requires a full Gigabyte of data, or 2.6 TB for your 1300 movies.

    And you've ignore how much data your're really talking about. A modest sized town of 100,000 persons likely has an average of 5 officers working 24/7. That works out to (5 officers * 24 hours/day * 30 days/month) 3600 hours of video per month. Are you ok if the department overwrites video every 30 days? Or do you want them to retain it for a year? Do you want it indexed in some useful way? Or just raw video stored by officer and date? I trust you won't be happy if a department claims videos were lost to a hard drive failure, so off site backup is going to be required.

    Again, I'm very much in favor of body cams.

    But anyone who hasn't worked with large data storage should be a bit careful in presuming to know what it costs to store and manage the large amounts of data involved with ubiquitous use of body cameras.

    Reduced legal, insurance, and settlement costs might be realized. And a good thing if they were. But how much is your local department currently spending on such things and how much do you figure they could be reduced with the use of body cameras?

    Charles
    http://www.toshiba.com/us/accessorie...s/HDTB210XK3BA

    Has the amount of movies at 820 movies per terabyte. That is at least 1600 hours of recorded MP4, depending on video quality, moderate to high quality which is what I use is about 1.5 gig per 2 hour movie. I am using 720 by 405 wide screen, 720 by 480 standard. Your figures are wayyyyyyyyyyy off, I know of no dept which is using that high of a quality to use the amount you claim. Myself I will get over 1200 hours on one Toshiba one terabyte hard drive. If I dropped to 480 quality, which is still very clear I could almost double it.

    The only reason they are claiming cost is they are searching for a reason to appease the unions, which are highly against cameras. At most a small dept it would cost them 25 bucks a week, buying a hard drive every other week. But buying even larger hard drives is even more economical. Not to mention a small dept probably could put their daily recordings on a blu-ray disc.
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    Regular Member Grim_Night's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by WalkingWolf View Post
    http://www.toshiba.com/us/accessorie...s/HDTB210XK3BA

    Has the amount of movies at 820 movies per terabyte. That is at least 1600 hours of recorded MP4, depending on video quality, moderate to high quality which is what I use is about 1.5 gig per 2 hour movie. I am using 720 by 405 wide screen, 720 by 480 standard. Your figures are wayyyyyyyyyyy off, I know of no dept which is using that high of a quality to use the amount you claim. Myself I will get over 1200 hours on one Toshiba one terabyte hard drive. If I dropped to 480 quality, which is still very clear I could almost double it.

    The only reason they are claiming cost is they are searching for a reason to appease the unions, which are highly against cameras. At most a small dept it would cost them 25 bucks a week, buying a hard drive every other week. But buying even larger hard drives is even more economical. Not to mention a small dept probably could put their daily recordings on a blu-ray disc.
    My point exactly. I skipped over the bluray option. A dual layer bluray can store 50+ GB of video or you can get ahold of quad layer blu ray disks which store 128GB of videos.

    http://www.digistor.com/Blu-ray-Recordable-Media

    25 pack of dual layer blu ray disks for $75. That's 1250GB of storage space that is easily transported and safe from EM radiation.
    Last edited by Grim_Night; 02-06-2015 at 08:17 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by WalkingWolf View Post
    Has the amount of movies at 820 movies per terabyte. That is at least 1600 hours of recorded MP4, depending on video quality, moderate to high quality which is what I use is about 1.5 gig per 2 hour movie. I am using 720 by 405 wide screen, 720 by 480 standard. Your figures are wayyyyyyyyyyy off, I know of no dept which is using that high of a quality to use the amount you claim. Myself I will get over 1200 hours on one Toshiba one terabyte hard drive. If I dropped to 480 quality, which is still very clear I could almost double it.
    I didn't realize anyone still watched movies in 720 resolution. My apologies. My movies are watched almost exclusively on a large screen so I maintain full DVD quality minimum.

    Yes, I expect that body cams are lower quality than my HD movies. Still, the costs to manage and store video are going to be notable on the bottom line. Not undoable, but notable.

    Quote Originally Posted by WalkingWolf View Post
    The only reason they are claiming cost is they are searching for a reason to appease the unions, which are highly against cameras. At most a small dept it would cost them 25 bucks a week, buying a hard drive every other week. But buying even larger hard drives is even more economical. Not to mention a small dept probably could put their daily recordings on a blu-ray disc.
    And the first time a department can't provide a copy of a body cam video because a hard drive crashed or blu-ray was damaged or lost, folks will scream "cover up". So you get to double the hardware cost to get a backup, and then add in the expertise to manage the system. Again, this is all doable, but not free.

    It is odd to me that departments are balking at doing this. Most all of the departments of which I'm aware have been very much on board. They clearly recognize they are far more likely to be falsely accused of excessive force by some criminal (who is really good at lying) than they are to actually use excessive force.

    Biggest complaints I've seen here is that body cams are not nearly as robust or rugged as some would like, and don't have enough record capability to be left on all shift, so an officer has to turn it off and on as he figures may be needed.

    Charles
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    So your suggestion is they NOT do it at all because they may make excuses!?

    You are grasping at straws for your apologia.
    Last edited by WalkingWolf; 02-06-2015 at 08:19 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by utbagpiper View Post
    Not at any reasonable quality. According to this calculator, an hour of H.264 compressed HD video (1920x1080 at 60 fps) requires 87 GB. At 2 hours per movie, 1300 movies would require 225 TB. H.265 will improve compression by about 40%. So call it 130 TB to get 1300, 2 hour long HD movies.

    Even when encoded down to view on my phone, a 2 hour movie requires a full Gigabyte of data, or 2.6 TB for your 1300 movies.
    Don't know about our definitions of "reasonable" being anywhere near each other. I run a 640x480, 30 FPS cam and I average 1.1-1.4 Gb per hour (MUCH less when in darker areas, and only as high as 2.2 the ONE time); this is with tons of audio and movements for it to record. Even with the resolution being a third of what you quoted above, I get clear enough quality that I can get faces and the like should something occur.

    I don't see police body cams being in high def. being a good compromise when "fair-acceptable" quality cams like mine work fine and are more economic in terms of memory. I think this is what WalkingWolf has been trying to get at, that we don't need the movie theater experience as much as the actual, uninterrupted footage.



    Add.: Seems I may have been correct
    Quote Originally Posted by utbagpiper View Post
    I didn't realize anyone still watched movies in 720 resolution. My apologies. My movies are watched almost exclusively on a large screen so I maintain full DVD quality minimum.
    ...
    Biggest complaints I've seen here is that body cams are not nearly as robust or rugged as some would like, and don't have enough record capability to be left on all shift, so an officer has to turn it off and on as he figures may be needed.
    As to ruggedness and selective use of cams: I imagine several "accidents" would take place should LEOs be entrusted with guarding the very data which could incriminate them. "Who will guard the guards?", so to speak.
    Last edited by Rusty Young Man; 02-06-2015 at 08:34 PM. Reason: Addendum
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    Quote Originally Posted by Rusty Young Man View Post
    Don't know about our definitions of "reasonable" being anywhere near each other. I run a 640x480, 30 FPS cam and I average 1.1-1.4 Gb per hour (MUCH less when in darker areas, and only as high as 2.2 the ONE time); this is with tons of audio and movements for it to record. Even with the resolution being a third of what you quoted above, I get clear enough quality that I can get faces and the like should something occur.

    I don't see police body cams being in high def. being a good compromise when "fair-acceptable" quality cams like mine work fine and are more economic in terms of memory. I think this is what WalkingWolf has been trying to get at, that we don't need the movie theater experience as much as the actual, uninterrupted footage
    That is all fair game then. Run your numbers forward. Call it 1GB per hour. In a city of 100k you might then expect about 120 hours of Video each 24 hours (5 officers on average by 24 hours per day). 120 GB per day is 3.6 TB per month. That isn't bad except who is going to accept a mere 30 days retention? So you're ten times that at 36 TB for not quite a year. Double that to 72 TB to do a single backup.

    You're still in the solidly doable range with 24, 3-TB drives. Which is good. Because uploading to some cloud storage isn't going to work well. 120GB per day is going to take 16 hours to upload even with a 1Gbps internet connection.

    My point is that before someone just says, "Cost isn't an issue," we should actually run some numbers and see what they really are and how they work out. Having done that, we have some basis in reality rather than just saying cost isn't an issue.

    My numbers were high. Great. Cost really doesn't look bad for the hardware. Toss in one or two IT techs to run it and life is good.

    And I'm seeing a business opportunity to create software to automate the downloading from the cams at the end of each shift, tag it, and automate retrieval.

    All the best.

    Charles
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    Quote Originally Posted by WalkingWolf View Post
    So your suggestion is they NOT do it at all because they may make excuses!?

    You are grasping at straws for your apologia.
    I realize there are those who can't read more than two lines at a time, but before accusing me of false positions or apologia, at least try to read what I write. Either ignore my wall of texts, or read them. But do not attribute false positions to me based on reading your maximum of two lines.

    "I'm very much in favor of body cams."

    "Again, I'm very much in favor of body cams."


    I just happen to think we present a stronger case when we acknowledge the costs that go along with the benefits we desire, rather than emphatically asserting the costs are non-existent or trivial.

    Notice how "Rusty Young Man" politely dissected and corrected the errors in my numbers, without imparting any untoward motives, nor hurling any insults my way at all. Rational discussion can be had when we stick to facts rather than looking for reasons to attack someone you've taken a dislike to.

    Charles
    Last edited by utbagpiper; 02-06-2015 at 08:45 PM.
    All experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. Thank heaven we do not permit a few to impose anarchy.

    "With Anarchy as an aim and as a means, Communism becomes possible."
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    A 12 year old could run the tech for it, it is that easy. You are just making excuses, most departments have plenty of personal that sit on their backside that can do it.

    My servers read the hard drives on a constant basis. As long as the body cams are synched to the cars hard drive, or SSD memory the down loads would be automatic.

    Again the money they save on paying high insurance premiums would pay for it easily.
    Last edited by WalkingWolf; 02-06-2015 at 08:51 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Rusty Young Man View Post
    As to ruggedness and selective use of cams: I imagine several "accidents" would take place should LEOs be entrusted with guarding the very data which could incriminate them. "Who will guard the guards?", so to speak.
    I've already seen several cases where the officers did not activate their cameras on the claim they didn't realize they were going into a situation where the cameras would be needed, and the situation then developed too quickly to take time to turn on the cameras. It sounds reasonable. It also sounds like a great way to make an excuse.

    On the flip side, it seems officers have as much or more to gain from body cams protecting against false allegations as they do to lose from actually being caught engaging in police brutality.

    What is needed is a body cam with sufficient battery and storage (perhaps both extended with motion/sound activation) to be turned on at the start of the shift and left on the entire shift. Put a law in place to protect release of the video if it reveals non-public info about others and you'd be set.

    My only point is that these are a fairly young technology and will be far from perfect.

    Charles
    All experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. Thank heaven we do not permit a few to impose anarchy.

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    The solution is simple.

    Just stream the videos to a live feed...then the public will store the video for them.

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    Regular Member WalkingWolf's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by utbagpiper View Post
    I've already seen several cases where the officers did not activate their cameras on the claim they didn't realize they were going into a situation where the cameras would be needed, and the situation then developed too quickly to take time to turn on the cameras. It sounds reasonable. It also sounds like a great way to make an excuse.

    On the flip side, it seems officers have as much or more to gain from body cams protecting against false allegations as they do to lose from actually being caught engaging in police brutality.

    What is needed is a body cam with sufficient battery and storage (perhaps both extended with motion/sound activation) to be turned on at the start of the shift and left on the entire shift. Put a law in place to protect release of the video if it reveals non-public info about others and you'd be set.

    My only point is that these are a fairly young technology and will be far from perfect.

    Charles
    It's not new tech, it has been around for a long time. It has gotten better like any tech but it has been around. And I constantly watch go pro footage during exercise, mostly bicycle tours or meets. Those cameras take a pounding on those bikes especially off road. And I have been able to sit and watch hours of uninterrupted footage. I call BS, just more excuses.
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    Quote Originally Posted by davidmcbeth View Post
    The solution is simple. Just stream the videos to a live feed...then the public will store the video for them.
    LOL Another truffle. You're on a roll! Better'n archiving, the public can monitor cop performance in real time and swat them down for misbehavior. "9-1-1 What's you emergency?" "Officer Porcine, responding to call 15-298, is battering the complainant! Send a supervisor and a reporter." DIY dispatching.
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    Quote Originally Posted by davidmcbeth View Post
    The solution is simple.

    Just stream the videos to a live feed...then the public will store the video for them.
    ^what he said^ but, never gonna happen. They need time to edit and misplace them.

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    Quote Originally Posted by WalkingWolf View Post
    It's not new tech, it has been around for a long time. It has gotten better like any tech but it has been around. And I constantly watch go pro footage during exercise, mostly bicycle tours or meets. Those cameras take a pounding on those bikes especially off road. And I have been able to sit and watch hours of uninterrupted footage. I call BS, just more excuses.
    A bicycling friend, ex-team physician orthopedic surgeon, sent me a link titled something like Bicycle BASE Jumping. It turned to be a Go-Pro ride down a trail to a take-off platform that the rider took and rode off the end. And tumbled and bounced, he took a lickin' and came up kicking. Ouch. Go Pro is tough and IPO $100.
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  20. #20
    Regular Member Tucker6900's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by WalkingWolf View Post

    The only reason they are claiming cost is they are searching for a reason to appease the unions, which are highly against cameras. At most a small dept it would cost them 25 bucks a week, buying a hard drive every other week. But buying even larger hard drives is even more economical. Not to mention a small dept probably could put their daily recordings on a blu-ray disc.
    Exactly.

    Police unions, in my opinion, are one of the top drivers of departments producing bad police employees. Most union works, non-law enforcement, are pretty untouchable, but when you add the fact that police officers are held to a different standard than we are, and they have a tendency to break the laws they enforce on us, i.e. seatbelts, speeding, running stop signs, no turn signals, etc. And when we complain, its generally swept under the rug and forgotten about.

    Body cameras are good. The ones that cannot be manipulated by the police employees are better. The Sheriff's Department in my county has cameras that are activated by a desk Sargent, given to the employee, and cannot be turned off until the Sargent does so.
    The only terrorists I see nowadays are at the Capital.


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  21. #21
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    Quote Originally Posted by Nightmare View Post
    LOL Another truffle. You're on a roll! Better'n archiving, the public can monitor cop performance in real time and swat them down for misbehavior. "9-1-1 What's you emergency?" "Officer Porcine, responding to call 15-298, is battering the complainant! Send a supervisor and a reporter." DIY dispatching.
    Words of wisdom...

    Last edited by davidmcbeth; 02-07-2015 at 03:02 PM.

  22. #22
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    Another issue with your numbers is that they are calculated at 60fps but that is unrealistic. Movie standard is 24 fps and most video games shoot for only 30fps. Now your TV might have a 60-120 refresh rate, but it is generally just duplicating the frame (a 120hz TV duplicates each frame 5 times in regards to a movie). Very little actually records at 60fps to the point of being an outlier.


    So for the police something in the 20-30 fps range would be more than adequate, which would at least halve the data storage requirements. And then there's the resolution. Standard Def worked for ages before HD came out. Even now plenty of things don't do a 1080p resolution. A 720 or lower quality would be fine. Hell, look at some of the lower end YouTube settings. While being a bit fuzzy you can still see well enough to tell what is going on.

    So while I agree that the cost can't be ignored, your numbers are greatly inflated due to unreasonable quality, to the point that almost nothing is done in such quality.

  23. #23
    Accomplished Advocate color of law's Avatar
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    My many years of experience tells me that standard operating procedure will be the camera had a fluke malfunction. "Fluke" being defined as a likely chance of occurrence, especially at the most opportune time.

  24. #24
    Campaign Veteran marshaul's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by utbagpiper View Post
    Not at any reasonable quality. According to this calculator, an hour of H.264 compressed HD video (1920x1080 at 60 fps) requires 87 GB. At 2 hours per movie, 1300 movies would require 225 TB. H.265 will improve compression by about 40%. So call it 130 TB to get 1300, 2 hour long HD movies.
    Seriously? You literally know nothing about the subject at hand, and yet you jump headfirst into the fray with a bunch of useless numbers you pulled from some calculator you googled?

    There are so many failings in your understanding here I don't know where to begin, but suffice it to say that an hour of 1080p can be compressed, with H.264, x.264, or even any number of less efficient codecs, way more than that. We're talking nearly two orders of magnitude here. Those numbers are clearly geared towards studio purposes. Archival purposes, which can tolerate visible artifacts so long as the action remains clear, are an entirely different ballpark.

    And that's ignoring the fact that full 1080p resolution isn't really necessary (even if that's what the cameras record); 720p or even 576p offer sufficient resolution for most purposes and can be encoded (well) at a fraction of the rate of 1080p. All of this transcoding can be done in hardware with a minimal (by institutional standards) initial outlay.

    No, storage costs for video are not an issue.

  25. #25
    Campaign Veteran marshaul's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by utbagpiper View Post
    I didn't realize anyone still watched movies in 720 resolution. My apologies. My movies are watched almost exclusively on a large screen so I maintain full DVD quality minimum.


    DVD = NTSC = 480i.

    720p is not only greater than 480i, it's enough that in many (totally ordinary) real-world viewing situations the angular resolution is sufficient to render pixels smaller than a normal eye's circle of confusion, which is the point at which a normal human viewer won't see an improvement from increasing resolution.
    Last edited by marshaul; 02-07-2015 at 09:21 PM.

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