The Utah CFP will be good as long as it has your Texas residence address on it. You'll basically need to change from a resident to a non-resident license. I do not know how onerous that process is, or if you can change your residence address before you leave Utah,but in any caseit will likely be easier and not take nearly as long as applying for a Texas CHL. A Utah CFP counts as an SA-class CHL, meaning you can carry any concealable handgun you like.
The laws in Texas are basically, you may carry however you want on your own property, you may OCwhile hunting and while in the car during a long-distance trip (the unofficial rule is a trip spanning four counties, crossing three or more county lines, is pretty safely "travelling"). You must CC while in a car for shorter trips (without a permit) and in general (permit required). CHLs cannot carry into school buildings without written authorization of the administration, cannot carry at interscholastic, collegiateor professional sporting events, cannot carry into government buildings including post offices, courthouse buildings and police/fire stations, and cannot carry at "bars", which are defined as making 51% or more of their revenue from sale of alcohol to be consumed on-premises. Signage prohibiting carry anywhere else MUST conform to the specifications of TPC 30.06; if the sign has even a comma out of place it is nonbinding, to say nothing of gunbuster signs. Granting permission to a third party to carryon your propertyis not strictlyprovided forat law,but it's unbelievably rare to see someone prosecuted for unlawful carry when the person on whose land they were carrying said they could do so, usually because there's no complaint about it so the police wouldn't be called because of it.
As far as having to use it, we're a Castle Doctrine state with no duty to retreat, and you are justified in using deadly force to prevent unlawful use of deadly force against you, a third person who would be justified themselves, or to prevent sexual assault, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary or murder/manslaughter. You are allowed to shoot to protect your own property from theft or damagein most cases, to protect someone else's property in some cases, and to recover stolen property while in immediate pursuit of the thief if there is no other way to recover it without putting you at considerable risk of bodily harm.
Welcome to Texas! We'd love to have the extra voice for OC here when January rolls around.