I don't recall if his 1851 was a conversion or not.
If not, he was shootingcap'n ball with black powder - all it really needs is warm water. Soap too, if you got it. As far as lube, some sort of gun butter would have been around.Dabbinggun butter over each ballprovided enough lube for the cylinder not to get bound up.
When smokeless came around, I imagine there was some sort of cleaning agent around (hasn't Hoppe's #9 been around forever?).
Not sure as to what kind of brushed they used, but I can't imagine they were all that different than what we have today.