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Thread: IDs accepted to purchase firearm???

  1. #1
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    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    ---

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    rlh2005 wrote:
    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    Find a different dealer who actually knows the laws. I have a close friend who has their po box on their id and a different address on their chp, and a matching to thedrivers licenseaddress on a voter card, hunting license etc. They have been able to purchase whatever they want whenever they want with no problems.

    the state police from their website state that the secondary id address must match the primary address, simply get your friend to purchase a hunting/fishing license with the po box address on it. there is no disqualification of purchase for having a po box address.

    if the dealer continues to balkgo to another dealer

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    NavyLT wrote:
    A P.O. box does not establish residency. I can have a P.O. box in any state and not be a resident of that state. HOWEVER, if he had one of the acceptable documents posted in the statute above that had both the PO Box number AND a physical residence address, I would think that would be OK.
    That's what I'm hoping.

    As for selecting a different dealer, apparently, the price is apparently a sale price and ends soon.

    As for using his voter reg card, he cannot find it and it will take too long to get a replacement.
    ---

  4. #4
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    May not work for an active duty person, but what if you get a utility bill mailed to a PO Box, but that also shows the "address of service" on the bill somewhere?

    The ID matches the mailing address, and the address of service should prove residence.

    ?

    TFred


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    NavyLT wrote:
    67GT390FB wrote:
    rlh2005 wrote:
    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    Find a different dealer who actually knows the laws. I have a close friend who has their po box on their id and a different address on their chp, and a matching to thedrivers licenseaddress on a voter card, hunting license etc. They have been able to purchase whatever they want whenever they want with no problems.

    the state police from their website state that the secondary id address must match the primary address, simply get your friend to purchase a hunting/fishing license with the po box address on it. there is no disqualification of purchase for having a po box address.

    if the dealer continues to balkgo to another dealer

    A P.O. box does not establish residency. I can have a P.O. box in any state and not be a resident of that state. HOWEVER, if he had one of the acceptable documents posted in the statute above that had both the PO Box number AND a physical residence address, I would think that would be OK.
    the OP friend is not SOL without military id and orders.

    chief reread my entire post, a voter card ORhunting/fishing license(all of which designate residency)w/ the po box address on themis an acceptable form of secondary ID see the VSP website.



    here is the VSP info. pay special attention to the headings Primary ID and Secondary ID neither of which restrict the use of a po box address.

    Virginia Firearms Transaction Program

    Virginia’s approach to firearms records checks does not infringe on an individual’s ability to purchase or possess a firearm, while those individuals who are prohibited by State or Federal law are denied legal access to firearms.



    The Virginia Department of State Police developed and administers the Virginia Firearms Transaction Program© (VFTP). This program became operational on November 1, 1989, and provides for a timely, point-of-sale, approval or disapproval decision regarding the sale or transfer of all firearms (except antiques) based upon the results of a criminal history record information (CHRI) check concerning the prospective purchaser pursuant to §18.2-308.2:2 of the Code of Virginia.

    This program was the first of its type in the nation. Virginia was able to implement this program because the Central Criminal Records Exchange (CCRE) maintained by the Virginia State Police is one of the most complete records repositories in the nation and provides the database for the VFTP.

    The VFTP authorizes properly licensed and registered firearms dealers to request criminal history record information (CHRI) checks on prospective purchasers via easy Internet access (VCheck) to the State Police firearms transaction system. VCheck is available between the hours of 8 AM and 10 PM, seven days a week, and including holidays, except December 25. An 800-telephone line is utilized as an alternate method of contacting the FTC should the dealer lose Internet connection or experience problems with his or her computer.

    Firearms dealers must complete form SP-69 to register with the VFTP. This form can be viewed, downloaded and/or printed by visiting the Virginia State Police Forms page.

    Virginia Code §18.2-308.2:3 requires a criminal history background check be performed for employees of a gun dealer to transfer firearms, whether full-time, part-time, permanent, temporary, paid or unpaid. Any person who sells firearms at a licensed dealership or gun show must submit to a national and state criminal history records check by the Department of State Police and Federal Bureau of Investigation. Firearm sellers must complete form SP-69A and submit a completed fingerprint card to the Firearms Transaction Center. SP-69A forms and fingerprint cards may be obtained by calling the Firearms Transaction Center (FTC) Help Desk at (804) 674-2292. In lieu of submitting fingerprints, any dealer holding a valid federal firearms license (FFL) issued by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) may submit a sworn and notarized affidavit to the Department of State Police on form SP-69B stating that the dealer has been subjected to a record check prior to the issuance and that the FFL was issued by the ATF. The affidavit may also contain the names of any employees that have been subjected to a record check and approved by the ATF. An SP-69B form may be obtained by calling the FTC Help Desk. This exemption shall apply regardless of whether the FFL was issued in the name of the dealer or in the name of the business.

    The purchaser’s name and certain personal descriptive data are immediately entered into a computer system at the dealer location or while the dealer remains on the telephone with the FTC. On the average it takes two minutes to provide a firearms dealer with an approval/disapproval decision. The design of this program eliminates traditional waiting periods by electronically accessing criminal records and "wanted" databases at the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) and the Virginia Criminal Records Exchange (CCRE) and provides an instantaneous approval or disapproval decision to the firearms dealer concerning the firearms sale or transfer.

    The National Instant Background System (NICS) was implemented effective November 30, 1998, under the permanent provisions of the federal Brady Law. Due to the requirement of Virginia Code Section 18.2-308.2:2 for all Virginia firearm dealers to contact this Department to receive an instant criminal background check prior to the transfer of a firearm, Virginia decided to act as the point of contact for the NICS check. Therefore, the Virginia Firearms Transaction Program was modified to interface with the NICS.

    National and state databases are accessed simultaneously at the time of transaction. Four are maintained by the Virginia Department of State Police, accessible by the Virginia Criminal Information Network (VCIN): Virginia’s wanted and missing persons files and protective orders, Virginia’s criminal history record files, a calendar file on handgun purchases required to monitor and enforce lawful handgun limitations and Virginia’s database of adjudications of legal incompetence and incapacity, and involuntary commitments to mental institutions for inpatient or outpatient treatment.

    The fifth database accessed during this check is the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) which searches the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) consisting of the Wanted Persons File, Protection Order File, Interstate Identification Index (III), Deported Felons File, US Secret Service Protective File, Foreign Fugitive File, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms’ Violent Felon File, and NICS indexes: Illegal/Unlawful Aliens File, Mental Defectives/Commitments File, Dishonorable Discharges, Citizenship Renunciants, Controlled Substance Abuse File and Denied Persons File.

    If an identification is not made in one or more of these files, the computer responds "YES THE TRANSFER IS APPROVED" and a unique computer-generated approval number is provided to the firearms dealer for the transaction. The firearm may be transferred upon the dealer's receipt of the approval number. If an identification is made, the computer responds "NO, NOT APPROVED AT THIS TIME" and review of the information/record is required to determine identification and lawful eligibility of the prospective firearms purchaser. The firearms dealer is notified immediately upon a final determination of eligibility.

    A prospective firearms purchaser must provide written consent permitting the firearms dealer to initiate a CHRI check to determine if the purchaser is eligible to purchase or possess a firearm. It is unlawful for any person to willfully and intentionally make a false statement on the required consent form. Firearms dealers are required by law to collect a fee of $2.00 from Virginia residents for every transaction which requires a criminal history record information (CHRI) check and a fee of $5.00 from non-Virginia residents. These fees are sent to the State Police to offset the cost of conducting the record checks.

    At no time is criminal history information released to the firearms dealer or any other individual contacting the Firearms Transaction Center by telephone.

    Identification and Residency Requirements

    A primary and secondary form of identification must be presented to the firearms dealer at the time of purchase of any firearm except an antique weapon, or replica of an antique weapon.

    Primary Identification

    The primary form of ID shall consist of a valid photo-ID form issued by a governmental agency of the Commonwealth or of the prospective purchaser or transferee’s home state that denotes the individual’s name, race, sex, address, and date of birth. Where the primary form is a photo-ID issued by the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), the dealer shall not transfer a firearm to the prospective purchaser until 30-days after the date of issue of an original or duplicate driver's license unless a copy of his/her DMV driver's record is presented showing that the original date of issue was more than 30-days prior to the attempted purchase.

    The primary form of ID for a non-Virginia resident, for the purchase of a rifle or shotgun, must consist of a valid photo-ID issued by a governmental agency of the prospective purchaser’s home state that denote the purchaser’s name, race, sex, date of birth and address. Federal law prohibits the sale or transfer of a handgun to a nonresident of the state in which the handgun is being purchased.

    A social security card IS NOT an acceptable form of identification.

    A birth certificate IS NOT an acceptable form of identification.

    Effective January 1, 2004, DMV will not issue an original license, permit, or ID card to any applicant who has not presented evidence that he/she is a citizen of the United States, a legal permanent resident, or an authorized temporary resident alien of the United States. In the instance of temporary residence, the DMV document will only be valid during the period of authorized stay in the United States.

    Secondary Identification

    The secondary form of identification, for Virginia residents and residents of other states, must show an address identical to that shown on the primary form of identification. Some acceptable forms of secondary ID are:

    • a current lease,
    • evidence of currently paid personal property tax or real estate tax,
    • a current utility or telephone bill,
    • a current voter registration card,
    • a current bank check,
    • a current passport,
    • a current automobile registration and
    • current hunting or fishing license.
    Transfer of an Assault Firearm

    Proof of citizenship, or of lawful admission for a permanent residence, must be established prior to the purchase of an "assault firearm." An assault firearm is defined as any semi-automatic center-fire rifle or pistol that expels single or multiple projectiles by action of an explosion of a combustible material and is equipped at the time of offence with a magazine which will hold more than 20 rounds of ammunition or designed by the manufacturer to accommodate a silencer or equipped with a folding stock.

    One of the following forms of proof of citizenship or lawful residence, pursuant to §18.2-308.2 must be presented to purchase an assault firearm:

    • a certified birth certificate or certificate of birth abroad issued by the US State Department,
    • an un-expired US Passport,
    • a U. S. citizen identification card,
    • a current voter registration card,
    • a current selective service registration card,
    • an immigrant or registration card issued by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and
    • a certificate of citizenship or a certificate of naturalization issued by the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
    Military Personnel

    Active military personnel permanently stationed in Virginia are treated as Virginia residents for the purchase of a handgun. Identification and residency are established by the following:

    A military photo-identification card issued by the United States Department of Defense and proof that Virginia is the permanent duty station via current military assignment orders is acceptable identification and residency documentation to establish military personnel as residents of Virginia.

    If permanently assigned to a mobile unit in Virginia, and the homeport is listed as Virginia; the transaction may be processed as a Virginia resident the same as any other permanent military assignment to Virginia supported by military assignment orders. The individual is treated as a non-Virginia resident if the homeport is listed as any place other than Virginia.

    Individuals retired from military service are subject to the same identification and residency requirements as any other person wishing to purchase a firearm; i.e., a primary and secondary form of ID.

    Law Enforcement Officers

    Due to the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1997, the Federal Gun Control Act was amended effective September 30, 1996; to make it unlawful for any person convicted of a "misdemeanor crime of domestic violence" to ship, transport, possess or receive firearms or ammunition. It also makes it unlawful for any person to sell or otherwise dispose of a firearm or ammunition to any person knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the recipient has been convicted of such a misdemeanor.

    State and federal law enforcement officers must meet primary and secondary ID requirements, and must consent to a CHRI check for the purchase of a firearm by completion of form SP-65.

    Law enforcement officers are not subject to Virginia’s handgun purchase restriction.

    Lawful Alien Status

    Federal law requires a transferee (buyer) who is not a citizen of the United States to provide additional identification in order to establish that he or she is a resident of a State. Such a transferee must provide a valid government-issued photo-identification to the seller that contains the buyer’s name, date of birth, and residence address. The Alien Resident identification number or INS Admission Number must be recorded on the Virginia Firearms Transaction Record (SP-65) form. In addition, such a transferee must provide documentation such as a utility bill or lease agreement that would establish that he or she has resided for at least 90 days prior to the date of this sale.

    Nonimmigrant Status

    On October 22, 1998, as part of the Omnibus Consolidated Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1999, Pub. L. 105-277, Congress amended the Gun Control Act by creating, with certain exceptions, a new category of persons prohibited from shipping, transporting, receiving, and possessing firearms: any alien "who has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa." This prohibition applies to "any alien in the United States in a nonimmigrant status." There are exceptions to the nonimmigrant alien provision. A nonimmigrant alien is not prohibited from purchasing, receiving, or possessing a firearm if the alien: (1) is in possession of a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States; (2) is an official representative of a foreign government who is accredited to the United States Government or their Government's mission to an international organization having its headquarters in the United States; or (3) has received a waiver from the prohibition form the Attorney General of the United States.

    There also is a process for nonimmigrant aliens to petition the Justice Department to waive the prohibition. Individuals should contact the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms if you have questions about the prohibition, its exceptions, or the waiver process.




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    rlh2005 wrote:
    NavyLT wrote:
    A P.O. box does not establish residency. I can have a P.O. box in any state and not be a resident of that state. HOWEVER, if he had one of the acceptable documents posted in the statute above that had both the PO Box number AND a physical residence address, I would think that would be OK.
    That's what I'm hoping.

    As for selecting a different dealer, apparently, the price is apparently a sale price and ends soon.

    As for using his voter reg card, he cannot find it and it will take too long to get a replacement.
    have your friend purchase a resident hunting or fishing license using his po box addressed drivers license. That will fill in the residency question.

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    rlh2005 wrote:
    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    what exactly is he trying to purchase, ie what is a "non-VA assault" rifle?

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    67GT390FB wrote:
    what exactly is he trying to purchase, ie what is a "non-VA assault" rifle?
    Sorry, "non-VA assault" rifle meant any rifle that doesn't meet the requirements of §18.2-308.2:01. I should have worded it better.

    In this specific case, it's a Remington 700 bolt-action rifle.

    Basically, I was trying to say a rifle that citizenship or permanent residence status did not need to be established.

    ETA corrected URL
    ---

  9. #9
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    rlh2005 wrote:
    67GT390FB wrote:
    what exactly is he trying to purchase, ie what is a "non-VA assault" rifle?
    Sorry, "non-VA assault" rifle meant any rifle that doesn't meet the requirements of [§]http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?000+cod+18.2-308.2C01]§ 18.2-308.2:01[/url]. I should have worded it better.

    In this specific case, it's a Remington 700 bolt-action rifle.

    Basically, I was trying to say a rifle that citizenship or permanent residence status did not need to be established.
    thats what i thought you meant but wanted to clarify and make sure i wasn't overlooking something. print out the VSP page on what is required and have your buddy buy a resident hunting/fishing license making sure the address matches his drivers license and the dealer should not be able to refuse the supplied id's as they meet all the requirements.

    as they say there is no cure for stupid and the dealer may or may not be willing to follow the law instead relying on what he thinks is correct.

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    OK, but the ATF4473 does not allow a PO Box.

    So, he should use:
    1.) his D/L (with PO box),

    AND

    2.) his car registration (with PO Box) or a hunting license (with PO Box)

    AND

    3.) a utility bill, property tax bill, mortgage, etc showing both the physical address and his mailing address (PO Box).


    ---

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    rlh2005 wrote:
    OK, but the ATF4473 does not allow a PO Box.

    So, he should use:
    1.) his D/L (with PO box),

    AND

    2.) his car registration (with PO Box) or a hunting license (with PO Box)

    AND

    3.) a utility bill, property tax bill, mortgage, etc showing both the physical address and his mailing address (PO Box).

    That is correct numbers 1 and 2 are all thats required for the VSP and number 3 is required for ATF. However on number 3 it doesnt need to show both the PO box and the physical it only needs to show physical.

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    rlh2005 wrote:
    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    Va law at 18.2-308.2:2 requires secondary ID to have address matching commonwealth photo ID - it appears in Va he cannot buy a gun from a dealer with a PO Box bearing DL - Va's heightenned ID requirements compared to mere fed law are onerous on many

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    We deal with this at work at least a dozen times a week.

    If the Virginia Drivers License has a P.O. Box, then the transferee will also need a 2nd document with the same P.O. Box address and something showing real residency.
    Most people in this situation use a Voter Card because they will not issue a Voter Card with a P.O. Box address, if they did the voting districts would be all messed up.

    Other things can works such as Hunting/Fishing License (with real street address), or some kind of bill or statement which is mailed to their physical address like a tax bill. A checkbook with their name and printed residential address.
    armorer & notary public for VA Arms Co FFL/SOT
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    Mike wrote:
    rlh2005 wrote:
    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    Va law at 18.2-308.2:2 requires secondary ID to have address matching commonwealth photo ID - it appears in Va he cannot buy a gun from a dealer with a PO Box bearing DL - Va's heightenned ID requirements compared to mere fed law are onerous on many
    Mike I'm sorry but you are wrong about this, I know someone and would be glad to have her contact you who has her PO BOX on her drivers license and who has purchased firearms in my presence from just about every dealer in the Richmond area(and beyond if you account for out of town dealers at gunshows)with no issues ever.

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    gotm4 wrote:
    We deal with this at work at least a dozen times a week.

    If the Virginia Drivers License has a P.O. Box, then the transferee will also need a 2nd document with the same P.O. Box address and something showing real residency.
    Most people in this situation use a Voter Card because they will not issue a Voter Card with a P.O. Box address, if they did the voting districts would be all messed up.

    Other things can works such as Hunting/Fishing License (with real street address), or some kind of bill or statement which is mailed to their physical address like a tax bill. A checkbook with their name and printed residential address.
    would not the Hunting fishng license with the PO box address work for the secondary id? you would still need the bill,checkbook, with a st address.

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    67GT390FB wrote:
    Mike wrote:
    rlh2005 wrote:
    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    Va law at 18.2-308.2:2 requires secondary ID to have address matching commonwealth photo ID - it appears in Va he cannot buy a gun from a dealer with a PO Box bearing DL - Va's heightenned ID requirements compared to mere fed law are onerous on many
    Mike I'm sorry but you are wrong about this, I know someone and would be glad to have her contact you who has her PO BOX on her drivers license and who has purchased firearms in my presence from just about every dealer in the Richmond area(and beyond if you account for out of town dealers at gunshows)with no issues ever.
    If you read the statute and the controlling regulation, it clearly requires any Commomwealth photo ID to bear the residential address to be confirmed by th address on the secondary ID - the fact that some gun dealers do a workaround, perhaps even sanctioned by the Virginia State Police (which by statute should not be giving dealers any advice as only DCJS is authorized to do this, and then by way of published regulation, which they have issued) is besides the fact - the man in question was denied a sale by a gun dealer arguably following the law.

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    Mike wrote:
    67GT390FB wrote:
    Mike wrote:
    rlh2005 wrote:
    A co-worker tried to purchase a "non-VA assault" rifle over the weekend. The dealer refused to accept his drivers license since it has a PO Box instead of his physical address.

    What are his options for what to use as ID?
    Va law at 18.2-308.2:2 requires secondary ID to have address matching commonwealth photo ID - it appears in Va he cannot buy a gun from a dealer with a PO Box bearing DL - Va's heightenned ID requirements compared to mere fed law are onerous on many
    Mike I'm sorry but you are wrong about this, I know someone and would be glad to have her contact you who has her PO BOX on her drivers license and who has purchased firearms in my presence from just about every dealer in the Richmond area(and beyond if you account for out of town dealers at gunshows)with no issues ever.
    If you read the statute and the controlling regulation, it clearly requires any Commomwealth photo ID to bear the residential address to be confirmed by th address on the secondary ID - the fact that some gun dealers do a workaround, perhaps even sanctioned by the Virginia State Police (which by statute should not be giving dealers any advice as only DCJS is authorized to do this, and then by way of published regulation, which they have issued) is besides the fact - the man in question was denied a sale by a gun dealer arguably following the law.

    Am i missing something here. Nothing on the VSP website denies the use of a a PO Box address as long as the secondary id confirms it. Nothing on the Fed Form requires the address on it match the address used on the state form.(correct)

    where is the workaround in this or where in VA statute does it deny you the use of a PO box Address.


    To establish personal identification and
    residence in Virginia for purposes of this section,
    a dealer must require any prospective purchaser
    to present one photo-identification form issued
    by a governmental agency of the
    Commonwealth or by the United States
    Department of Defense, and other
    documentation of residence.
    Except where the
    photo-identification was issued by the United
    States Department of Defense, the other
    documentation of residence shall show an
    address identical to that shown on the photoidentification
    form
    ,

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    The 4473 reads that the address must not be a PO box.
    armorer & notary public for VA Arms Co FFL/SOT
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    gotm4 wrote:
    The 4473 reads that the address must not be a PO box.
    but does anything on form 4473 say that the address on it must be the same as the address on the State form?

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    The current VSP form doesn't ask for an address.
    armorer & notary public for VA Arms Co FFL/SOT
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    Bill in VA wrote:
    Rather thaneveryone continuing to bash this un-named dealer, spouting off VA state law and parsing words, let's remember one thing that everyone here seems to be overlooking: dealers are bound by federal law as well as state law, and sice the federal government issues FFLs and controls the trade in firearmsthat federal law supercedes state law.

    Under federal law the buyer MUST provide two pieces of ID with the same physical home address on them, one of which must be some form of government-issued ID (such as a driver's license.) See lines 2,20a and 20b on the federal Form 4473. Line 2 (Current Residence Address)specifically states, "Cannot be a Post Office Box." The buyer has to fill out both state and federal forms and the federal form requires a physical address as shown on a government-issued ID.

    The dealer was in the right.


    http://www.atf.gov/forms/download/atf-f-4473.pdf
    EOM
    I see what you are saying but if you read the fine print it can work like so..

    2 forms of ID showing PO Box will satisfy Va

    1 form showing physical address will satisy 4473

    Its in the fine print as well as VSP-FTC will agree.



    Gotm4

    no the SP-65 doesnt ask for address but the dealer has to enter information on the form showing he has seen 2 forms of ID and enter the types if ID used, expiration dates etc..

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    So let me get this straight, you all are saying that a transient person be they homeless or an RV'er with no fixed permanent address other than a PO Box does not have theright to purchase a firearm through a FFL?

    Women(or men for that matter)who don't want to display their home address to every server/cashier/bartender/officer/etc and have a PO box address on their Drivers license do not have the right to purchase a firearm through a FFL either?

    I can't imagine 7-8 different dealers all getting this wrong and this one lone dealer is getting it right.


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  25. #25
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    Bill in VA wrote:
    Look at a Form 4473. I provided a link to a /pdf copy of a Form 4473. Read it.

    Unless you have an FFL you're required to fill out a Form 4473 when you purchase a firearm from another FFL (excepting the few differences withregards to aType 03/C&R FFL.) The Form 4473 is a federal form. Yes, you must fill out a Form 4473 and yes, you must provide some sort of government-issued ID with a physical address in order to prove residency.
    http://www.atf.gov/forms/download/atf-f-4473.pdf

    Look at "Question 20.b. Alternate Documentation" on page 2 and it's explanation on 5 of the linked 4474 PDF. This allows for your photo ID to have a PO Box and a separate government issued identification (e.g. voter registration card) to have your physical address.
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