It is not the brass case that cannot take the pressure, it is the firearm. I take .38spl cases, remove metal and shorten them, and load to over 357 pressures for an obsolete rifle from 1905. The gun requires such pressure and velocity to function the self-loading action. It is not the case size but the firearm that is the determining factor.
About the only example of modern factory ammo that I can think of, loaded for 2 different pressure levels, is for the 45/70. You can purchase ammo for trapdoor style actions (weaker) or modern power levels.
It makes no sense for a business to sell, for example, .38 spl ammo suitable for Colt revolvers with heat treated cylinders, and a lower pressure type for pre heat treatment revolvers. Joe shooter just wants to know that if he buys .38 special ammo, it will go bang in his gun without blowing up. SAAMI specs were lowered in the past to accommodate weaker firearms and keep the lawyers happy.
I have a different criteria for handgun ammo for myself and family. Reloadable so that we can practice a lot. Are you able to shoot fast and accurately with it. Son likes a 9mm with 17 shot magazine. Daughter shoots a S&W m19 357 mag but with very light handloads because she hates recoil. Wife likes a little Sig in .380 auto, I think just because it is 'cute', but she does shoot it well. I use an old .38 colt because it is light and comfortable and I like old guns.
All the above do the job of a handgun, punch a hole in the target. If you want temporary wound channel, massive expansion and manstopping power, carry a rifle.